Vascular surgery is the branch of surgery in which surgery is performed by medical therapy, surgical reconstruction and minimally-invasive catheter procedures diseases of the vascular system, veins, arteries and lymphatic circulation. The specialty evolved from general and cardiac surgery as well as minimally invasive techniques pioneered by interventional radiology. Vascular surgeons are trained for diagnosing the diseases affecting all parts of the vascular system excluding those of the heart and brain. Cardiothoracic surgeons and interventional cardiologists manage diseases of the heart vessels. Neurosurgeons and interventional neuroradiologists surgically manage diseases of the vessels in the brain.